References for Millers Falls Company History

References for Gunn & Amidon page

Gunn & Amidon page

  1. Basic information for this chapter is from: Allan D. Adie. “75 Years of Honest Endeavor.” Dyno-mite, December 1943, p. 18-19 & 22; Gazette and Courier. (Greenfield, Mass.) January 1862-Dec. 1868; “The Millers Falls Co.” Hardware Dealers Magazine, January 1915, v. 43, no. 253, p. 107-117.
  2. On the business before 1862: Paul Jenkins. The Conservative Rebel: a Social History of Greenfield, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1982. p. 126.
  3. Ashley Holland was one of the witnesses to Charles Amidon’s application for his 1862 wringer patent. It was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 36,761.
  4. Information about the promotion of Amidon’s first wringer is from advertisements: Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) August 24, 1863 and November 11, 1863.
  5. The Lash washing machine was awarded United States Letters Patent no. 36,658. Information on the Gunn & Amidon version is from an advertisement: Gazette and Courier ((Greenfield, Mass.) December 19, 1864.
  6. Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) July 31, 1865. Charles Amidon’s improved wringer was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 47,079.
  7. Notices of Saxton’s arrival and departure: Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) March 27, 1865 & June 25, 1866. Example of a short partnership: Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) December 18, 1871.
  8. William H. Barber’s chuck was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 42,827. See also the biography of his son, James T., in: The History of Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, Past & Present: Including an Account of the Cities, Towns and Villages of the County. Chicago: C. F. Cooper, 1914. p. 643-645. Amidon’s chuck with the floating socket block was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 50,214. Amidon's eyebolt brace was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 64,931.
  9. Amidon’s four-gear wringer was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 64,932.
  10. Amidon’s Barber Improved Chuck was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 73,279.

References for Millers Falls Mfg. page

Millers Falls Mfg. page

  1. Although Gunn is sometimes considered to have been the first president, Pratt’s position is listed in the notice of incorporation published in the Gazette and Courier.
  2. Map of Lands and Water Power for Sale by Oliver and James Moore, Erving and Montague, Mass.: Surveyed and Plotted by Jas. Stevens, Engineer & S. Moore, C. Surveyor. Hartford, Conn.: E. B. & E. C. Kellogg, July 1856.
  3. Old Sturbridge Village. Oliver Moore Collection. No. 1974.1.1.3.160.
  4. James Moore died tragically in June of 1869, entangled in the reins of a team of runaway horses.
  5. Old Sturbridge Village. Oliver Moore Collection. No. 1974.1.1.3.161.
  6. “A Destructive Fire in Greenfield.” Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) January 4, 1869.
  7. Information on the baby carriage factory and the lawsuit: Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) November 27, 1871 and December 4, 1871. Amidon’s Buffalo activities: Frank Kosmerl. “Buffalo Bit Brace Makers.” Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association, v. 45 no. 4, p. 101.
  8. The brace Rose patented in 1867 was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 63,944. The sweep handle: United States Letters Patent No. 82,251.
  9. The lawsuit: “New England News.” Boston Daily Advertiser (Boston, Mass.) March 19, 1869; “Greenfield Items.” Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) April 26, 1869. Lester and the patent transfers: “Greenfield Items.” Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) June 28, 1869 and August 16, 1869.
  10. Goodell’s brace was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 79,825. On the first Goodell factory: Biographical Review: Sketches of the Leading Citizens of Franklin County, Massachusetts. Boston: Biographical Review Publishing Company, 1895. p. 325-326; “Buckland - Manufacturing Interests.” History of the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia: L. H. Everts, Press of J. B. Lippincott & Company, 1879. vol. 2, p. 699.
  11. On Sawyer’s career: Biographical Review: Sketches of the Leading Citizens of Franklin County, Massachusetts. Boston: Biographical Review Publishing Company, 1895. p. 86-87. Sawyer’s brace head attachment was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 118,058. McCoy’s sweep handle was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 118,039.
  12. Dolan’s ratchet was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 110,960. Most early Millers Falls ratchet braces are stamped on the shell with the date of the patent. His patent is also referenced in the 1878 company catalog. Lynam’s ratchet was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 113,680.
  13. An 1871 map of Millers Falls shows that in addition to the baby carriage factory, two other businesses bearing the name Amidon were located downstream from the Millers Falls factory on the mill canal. The firm of Amidon & Newton did at least some manufacturing but also contracted for carpentry and construction work. Solomon Amidon, one of the principals, was Charles H. Amidon’s older brother. (Another brother, William also lived in the village at this time.) The third Amidon firm, Amidon & Cobb, made hand plane irons. The Amidon involved with this firm has not been identified. See: F. W. Beers and G. P. Sanford. Atlas of Franklin Co., Massachusetts: from Actual Surveys. New York: F. W. Beers & Co., 1871. The statistics and the new wing: Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) 1870-September 1873.
  14. Thanks to Kendall H. Bassett for providing information on the officers of the Backus Vise Company via the firm’s letterhead. Fred C. Hubbard. Letter to Messrs. Norris H. Bragg & Sons, May 27, 1871. Other information about the Backus Vise Company in its Millers Falls location: Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) 1870-1873.

References for 1873-1879 page

1873-1879 page

  1. “Business Interests.” Boston Daily Advertiser, February 03, 1875; “Millers Falls.” Gazette & Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) February 22, 1875.
  2. Langdon’s location within the Millers Falls plant: Telephone interview, John J. Owen, Millers Falls Company president from 1962 to 1965, March 5, 2005.
  3. Pratt’s chuck was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 194,109.
  4. The Horton re-issue, United States Letters Patent No. RE 4,187. The Clemens Rose re-issue, United States Letters Patent No. RE 6,212. The C. H. Stockbridge re-issue, United States Letters Patent No. RE 6,350.
  5. “Catalogs Provide Insight into Company Progress.” In: A Century of Experience: Millers Falls Company. Greenfield, Mass.: Greenfield Record, Gazette and Courier, August 13, 1968.
  6. H. L. Pratt. Letters to Millers Falls Company, Millers Falls, Massachusetts, spring-summer, 1879. Private collection.
  7. Edward P. Stoughton. Letter to Millers Falls Company, Millers Falls, Massachusetts, August 30, 1879. One of a packet of thirty letters, dating September 30, 1878-September 5, 1879. Seven addressed to L. J. Gunn, Tr. (Treasurer), one to George E. Rogers, (“Mr. Rogers”) and the remainder to general attention (“Gents”). Private collection.
  8. The information on Lester & Lyman: Pearl B. Care, Anastacia Burnett, and Doris A Felton. The History of Erving, Massachusetts, 1838-1998. Erving, Mass.: Erving Historical Society, 1988. p. 31; United States. Dept. of the Interior. Census Office. Reports on the Water-Power of the United States. Part 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1885. p. 113.
  9. Franklin County, Massachusetts. Register of Deeds. Book 348. p. 239. (Certified copy in the Greenleaf Collection, Museum of Our Industrial Heritage, Greenfield, Mass.) It is interesting to note the other signer of the deed was Levi Gunn, the Treasurer and a founder of the Millers Falls Company. The deed was witnessed by George E. Rogers, a justice of the peace and the Secretary of the Millers Falls Company. The deed was recorded by Franklin County Registrar Edwin Stratton, one of the owners of the Stratton Level Company, a supplier of wooden levels to the Millers Falls Company. See also: History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts: with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia: L. H. Everts, Press of J. B. Lippincott & Company, 1879. vol. 2. p. 650; “Fire Record: Ravages of the Devouring Element in Various Localities.” The North American (Philadelphia, Pa.), October 8, 1881.
  10. Wood Workers' Tools: Being a Catalogue of Tools, Supplies, Machinery and Similar Goods Used by Carpenters, Builders, Cabinet Makers, Pattern Makers, Millwrights, Carvers, Ship Carpenters, Inventors, Draughtsmen, and all "Wood Butchers" not Included in the Foregoing Classification, and in Manufactories, Mills, Mines, etc. etc. Detroit, Michigan : Charles A. Strelinger & Company, 1897, p. 862.
  11. R. C. Graves. Letters to Millers Falls Company, Millers Falls, Massachusetts, May 13, 1878-September 8, 1879. Packet of forty-seven letters: two addressed to Levi Gunn (“Brother Levi”), one to George E. Rogers, (“Mr. Rogers”) and the remainder to general attention (“Gents”). Private collection.
  12. R. C. Graves. Letters to Millers Falls Company, Millers Falls, Massachusetts, July 11, 1879, July 14, 1879, July 17, 1879, August 9, 1879, August 18, 1879. Private collection.
  13. "Death of Royal C. Graves.” Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) June 18, 1910, p. 4.

References for 1879 page

1879 page

1. The information on the company’s use of tropical hardwoods and the role of women workers: “Millers Falls—Its Wonderful Growth and Promising Future” Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) November 4, 1872.

References for 1880-1890 page

1880-1890 page

  1. Although the article in Hardware Dealers Magazine conveniently ignores the fact that Millers Falls was not actually producing its blades, I have placed enough trust in it to use the information about the Stubbs saw and the publicity stunt. I used the Dictionary of American Tools for information on the founding of Clemson Brothers and Roger K. Smith for mention of the soles sales agent relationship. (At some point during the firms’ long relationship, Clemson Brothers instituted direct sales as well.) Dictionary of American Tools. Early American Industries Association, 1999. p. 172; “The Millers Falls Co.” Hardware Dealers Magazine, January 1915, v. 43, no. 253, p. 112-113; Roger K. Smith. Patented Transitional & Metallic Planes in America, Vol. II. Published by Roger K. Smith, 1992. p. 265.
  2. A digression: Into each life a little rain must fall, and, certainly, some fell into Albert’s in 1885 when his wife became a charter member of the Millers Falls Temperance Union. Pearl B. Care, Anastacia Burnett, and Doris A Felton. The History of Erving, Massachusetts, 1838-1998. Erving, Mass.: Erving Historical Society, 1988. p. 168.
  3. On the Companion lathe: “The Millers Falls Co.” Hardware Dealers Magazine, January 1915, p. 113.
  4. Information on the baseball teams is from Care; the dates of Levi Gunn’s local civic contributions are courtesy Thompson; his service at the state level is courtesy Kellogg. Pearl B. Care, Anastacia Burnett, and Doris A Felton. The History of Erving, Massachusetts, 1838-1998. Erving, Mass.: Erving Historical Society, 1988. p. 199; Francis M. Thompson. History of Greenfield: Shire Town of Franklin County, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass: isn't, 1904. v. 2, p. 776-777; Lucy Cutler Kellogg. History of Greenfield, 1900-1929. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1931. p. 1602.
  5. With regard to the flood, I have my faith in Adie, who put the flood in the early 1880s, rather than Care, who placed it in the latter 1870s. Allan D. Adie. “75 years of Honest Endeavor.” Dyno-mite, December 1943, p. 19; Pearl B. Care, Anastacia Burnett, and Doris A Felton. The History of Erving, Massachusetts, 1838-1998. Erving, Mass.: Erving Historical Society, 1988. p. 22.

References for 1890-1900 page

1890-1900 page

  1. On Pratt’s contribution and the Columbia exposition: Allan D. Adie. “75 years of Honest Endeavor.” Dyno-mite, December 1943, p. 19.
  2. McCoy’s self-opening brace jaws were awarded United States Letters Patent No. 421,420; his three-jaw drill chuck, no. 568,539; his angular bit stock, no. 586,053.
  3. The Rogers auger handle was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 484,050. Pratt’s ratcheting auger handle: United States Letters Patent No. 438,860.

References for 1900-1910 page

1900-1910 page

  1. "Usual 15 Per Cent Dividend Declared." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) January 31, 1903, p. 1.
  2. "To Make Big Addition." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) May 25, 1901, p. 1; "A Boom in Millers Falls." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) November 23, 1901, p. 2; "Millers Falls Company Enlarges Again." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) November 22, 1902, p. 6; "To Improve Their Power." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) October 17, 1903, p. 6.
  3. "Franklin County." Boston Sunday Globe (Boston, Mass.) June 1, 1902, p. 2; "The Millers Falls Paper Company." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) December 6, 1902. p. 1: "Millers Falls Builds 18 New Houses." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) November 21, 1903, p. 2.
  4. "Franklin County: Local Stories of Wood and Coal." Boston Courier (Boston, Mass.) October 5, 1902, p. 2; "Total Coal Receipts Little More Than a Week's Supply." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) January 3, 1903, p. 6.
  5. “The Millers Falls Co.” Hardware Dealers Magazine, v. 43, no. 253, January 1915, p. 111.
  6. "The Millers Falls Company Changes its Officers." Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, Mass.) January 29, 1910. p. 2.

References for 1910-1920 page

1910-1920 page

  1. Not including a boiler building added in the late 1940s.
  2. “Millers Falls Co.” Western New England, September 1912, p. 252. The illustrations are on p. xxvi-xxvii.
  3. The United States Patent Office registration number for the star trademark, No. 86,431; for the trapezoid and star, No. 110,863.
  4. Statistics on number of bit braces and drills: “The Millers Falls Co.” Hardware Dealers Magazine, January 1915, v. 43, no. 253, p. 113.
  5. Paul Jenkins. The Conservative Rebel: a Social History of Greenfield, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1982. p. 189.
  6. “Salesman Finds Russia Unfriendly to Visitors.” A Century of Experience: Millers Falls Company. Greenfield, Mass.: Greenfield Record, Gazette and Courier, August 13, 1968. unpaged.
  7. Catalog No. L. Millers Falls, Mass.: Millers Falls Co., 1917. p. 35.
  8. On the largest auger bit: “Panamanian Auger.” A Century of Experience: Millers Falls Company. Greenfield, Mass.: Greenfield Record, Gazette and Courier, August 13, 1968, unpaged. The end of auger bit production: “Millers Falls is Name Famous in World of Industry.” Montague 200th Anniversary Edition: Greenfield Recorder-Gazette. (Greenfield, Mass.) June 4, 1954. p. D-13.
  9. Stoughton’s obituary: New York Times (New York) October 4, 1939, p. 25.

References for 1920-1930 page

1920-1930 page

  1. Telephone interview, John J. Owen, Millers Falls Company president from 1962 to 1965, March 5, 2005. John Owen is the grandson of George E. Rogers and the nephew of Philip Rogers. Kingman Brewster’s son, Kingman Brewster, Jr., went on to become a highly regarded president of Yale University, and later, United Sates Ambassador to Great Britain.
  2. “Rogers Learned Business by First Hand Experience.” A Century of Experience: Millers Falls Company. Greenfield, Mass.: Greenfield Record, Gazette and Courier, August 13, 1968. unpaged.
  3. On the Brattleboro factory: L. A. Whitney. “History of Our Plant in Brattleboro, Vermont.” Brace Bits, v. 1, no. 4, February 1921, p. 1-2; On Kenneth Saunders: “This is His Story.” Dyno-mite, September/October 1955, p.12-13.
  4. On Clemson Brothers ending its relationship with Millers Falls: Telephone interview with John J. Owen, Millers Falls Company president from 1962 to 1965, March 5, 2005.
  5. On West Haven: Modern History of New Haven and East New Haven. New York: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1918. p. 222-225; “The Drugan Story.” Dyno-mite, October 1957, p. 12-13; “Our New Plant in West Haven.” Brace Bits, v. 1, no. 2, December 1920, p. 1-2.
  6. The West Haven Manufacturing Company: Makers of “Universal” Hack Saw Blades ...: Catalog No. 15. West Haven, Conn.: West Haven Mfg., 1918.
  7. On William Shortell and changing the Millers Falls trademark: Telephone interview, John J. Owen. March 5, 2005.
  8. On the date of the Accurate Level acquisition: Pearl B. Care, Anastacia Burnett, and Doris A Felton. The History of Erving, Massachusetts, 1838-1998. Erving, Mass.: Erving Historical Society, 1988. p. 199. On Connell's ownership: Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office, v. 338, September 1925, p. 255.
  9. The Fox lever cap was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 1,822,520.

References for 1930-1948 page

1930-1948 page

  1. “Good Tools Made Better: De Luxe Products Created Solely to Meet a Fastidious Demand.” Modern Plastics. vol. 17, no. 8, p. 56, 94-95.
  2. Telephone interview, Edward Shortell Jr., January 5, 2005. Edward Shortell, Jr. is the son of Edward Shortell, the superintendent of the factory located in Miller Falls in the early 1950s and later general superintendent for both the Millers Falls and Greenfield plants. The elder Shortell considered the incident to be a significant factor in the company’s inability to compete with the likes of Black and Decker. John J. Owen, the nephew of Philip Rogers, part of the 1950s management team and Millers Falls Company president from 1962-1965, confirmed the incident and added the information about passing on wartime incentives. Telephone interview, John Owen, March 5, 2005.

References for 1948-1962 page

1948-1962 page

  1. Collura and the hand drills: U. S. Industrial Design, 1949-1950. New York: Studio Publications, 1949. p. 130. Collura and the hacksaw frame: United States Design Patent No. 140,810.
  2. The quote: Paul Jenkins. The Conservative Rebel: a Social History of Greenfield, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1982. p. 213.
  3. The quote: Paul Jenkins. The Conservative Rebel: a Social History of Greenfield, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1982. p. 213. On the practice of offering a position to a worker’s spouse: Telephone interview with Regis Garvey, president of Millers Falls in the late 1960s and early 1970s, January 4, 2005. The pocketful of cigars: Paul Jenkins. The Conservative Rebel: a Social History of Greenfield, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1982. p. 226.
  4. Telephone interview, John J. Owen, Millers Falls Company president from 1962 to 1965, March 5, 2005.
  5. Two sources for this paragraph: Telephone interview, John J. Owen. March 5, 2005; e-mails, Dec. 14 and Dec. 16, 2004, James Mitchell, company president from 1972-1980. The “memories like elephants” characterization is courtesy James N. Mitchell.
  6. Telephone interview, John J. Owen. January 5, 2005.
  7. The information about Union Tool, the Union Caliper Company, Bates Mfg. Co.: Roger K. Smith. Letter, Athol Massachusetts, to Author, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, July 7, 2007; Orra L. Stone. History of Massachusetts Industries: Their Inception, Growth and Success. Vol. I. Boston: S. J. Clarke Publishing, 1930. p. 475-476; Kenneth L. Cope. Makers of American Machinist’s Tools: a Historical Directory of Makers and Their Tools. Mendham, N. J.: Astragal Press, 1994. p. 278.
  8. “Emory E. Ellis.” Western Massachusetts: a History, 1636-1925. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1926. p. 193.
  9. The research on the Union Tool Company, Sogard and SoJo, based on city directories and newspaper clippings, was done by Steve Brackett, who reported to the OldTools discussion group: OldTools Message Archive, message nos. 139338 & 139025. Available at: http://archive.oldtools.org. Viewed July 15, 2007; Also: “Sogard Tool Company and Adell Corporation and United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE), Local 274.” Decisions of the National Labor Relations Board. v. 285-1044, case no. 1-CA-23967.

References for 1962-1969 page

1962-1969 page

  1. Unless otherwise specified, information on the buyout and Owen’s presidency: Telephone interviews, John J. Owen, January 5, 2005, and March 5, 2005.
  2. “Ingersoll-Rand Sets Acquisition”. New York Times. May 18, 1962. p. 45.
  3. E-mails to author, October 20, 2004, December 16, 2004, James N. Mitchell, company president, 1972-1980. In the this quote, I substituted the word “Pendleton” for Mitchell’s word “Proto.” Ingersoll-Rand employees frequently referred to Pendleton Tool by the name of its best known brand—Proto Tools. The P & C Hand Forged Tool Company of Milwaukie, Oregon, was acquired by Pendleton Tool in early 1941. (Pendleton Tool was named Plomb Tool Company at the time.) P & C took its name from its founders, John Peterson and Charles Carlborg, who had organized the business in 1920.
  4. On the forklift problems and museum inquiry: Greenfield Popular Union. More of the Same: Millers Falls Tool Threatens to Runaway. Turners Falls, Mass.: Greenfield Popular Union, 1977.
  5. On Pendleton’s assistance to Otis Brown: E-mail to author from James N. Mitchell, October 20, 2004.

References for 1969-1982 page

1969-1982 page

  1. The quote and, unless otherwise specified, the information on Garvey’s presidency: Telephone interviews with Regis Garvey, January 4, 2005, and April 21, 2005; “MF Co. Names New President.” Greenfield Recorder Gazette. (Greenfield, Mass.) 1973. (from newspaper clipping lacking month and date of publication)
  2. The quote: Pearl B. Care, Anastacia Burnett, and Doris A Felton. The History of Erving, Massachusetts, 1838-1998. Erving, Mass.: Erving Historical Society, 1988. p. 23.
  3. The quote: Telephone interview with Regis Garvey, April 21, 2005.
  4. On Ingersoll-Rand and division managers: “Banquet Days for Capital Goods Producers.” Business Week. June 22, 1974, p. 75.
  5. Unless otherwise specified, information on Jim Mitchell’s presidency: Series of nine e-mail messages to author from James N. Mitchell, September 29, 2004 through December 16, 2004.
  6. The quote: E-mail to author from James N. Mitchell, Oct. 1, 2004.
  7. The quote: E-mail to author from James N. Mitchell, Dec. 12, 2004.
  8. The quote: E-mail to author from James N. Mitchell, Oct. 20, 2004.
  9. The research on the Union Tool Company and SoJo, based on city directories and newspaper clippings, was done by Steve Brackett, who reported to the OldTools discussion group: OldTools Message Archive, message nos. 139338 & 139025. Available at: http://archive.oldtools.org. Viewed July 15, 2007.
  10. The quote: “Bucking the Trend: a New England Town Stops a Big Employer from Moving South.” Wall Street Journal. January 9, 1978, p. 1, 22.
  11. Planning for (and building of) the new plant: “Bucking the Trend: a New England Town Stops a Big Employer from Moving South.” Wall Street Journal. January 9, 1978, p. 1, 22. For the union’s side of the story: Greenfield Popular Union. More of the Same: Millers Falls Tool Threatens to Runaway. Turners Falls, Mass.: Greenfield Popular Union, 1977. For an analysis of local politics at the time of the controversy: Paul Jenkins. The Conservative Rebel: a Social History of Greenfield, Massachusetts. Greenfield, Mass.: Town of Greenfield, 1982. p. 253-256.
  12. Letter to author from James N. Mitchell, undated. (received May 13, 2005). In it, the author refers to himself as “Mitchell.” As I’ve made several minor edits, I have not treated the text as a quote.
  13. The quotes: E-mail to author from James N. Mitchell, Dec. 14, 2004, Oct. 12, 2004.
  14. The quote: “Subject: Hand Tool Announcement.” Ingersoll-Rand. Power Tool Division. Circular Letter #M-496. October 4, 1982.